Page 4 - OSMERT-2 Module 6 (inside pages) final
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The communiqué released at the end of this workshop brought to light the need and urgency
               to deploy modern integrated bioremediation protocols with Geo-information technologies such
               as Digital  Cartography, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Global Positioning Systems
               (GPS) and Remote Sensing.

               In a similar vein, delivering one of the keynote lectures in November 2012, at the “First Niger
               Delta Environment and Sustainable Development Conference”, organized by the Institute of
               Natural Resources and Sustainable Development (INRES), at the University of Port Harcourt,
               delivered on “Natural Resources, Environment, and Socio-Economic considerations in the
               Sustainable Development of the Niger Delta”, Prof. D. M. J. Fubara declared:

                       “Looking back, one is therefore tempted to assume that perhaps the provisions of
                       the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development particularly Principle 4 which
                       had emphasized that in order to achieve sustainable development, environmental
                       protection shall constitute an integral part of the development process and cannot
                       be considered in isolation  from it, may have been written with the  protection of
                       communities  in the Niger Delta in mind. Accordingly, Principle 1 of the Rio
                       Declaration on Environment and Development, 1992, provides that Human beings
                       are at the centre of the concerns for sustainable development. They are entitled to
                       a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature.” (Fubara, 2012).

               The position of Prof. Fubara as stated above is just one of the numerous clamours to rescue
               the Niger Delta Environment from imminent collapse due to gradual unattended degradation of
               its environment. This is perhaps worsened with the uncontrolled oil and gas exploration
               activities that have left hydrocarbon footprints and contaminants  too huge and difficult  to
               curtail.

               According to Vidali (2001), the conventional techniques used for remediation have been to dig
               up contaminated soil and remove it to a landfill, or to cap and contain the contaminated areas
               of a site. The methods have some drawbacks. The first method simply moves the contamination
               elsewhere and may create significant risks in the excavation, handling, and transport of
               hazardous material. Additionally, it is very difficult and increasingly expensive to find new landfill
               sites for the  final disposal of  the material. The cap and contain method is only an interim
               solution since the contamination remains on site, requiring monitoring  and maintenance of the
               isolation barriers long into the future, with all the associated costs and potential liability.

               A better approach than these traditional methods is to completely destroy the pollutants if
               possible, or at least to transform them to innocuous substances. Some technologies that have
               been used are high-temperature incineration and various types of chemical decomposition (e.g.,
               base-catalyzed dechlorination, UV oxidation). They can be very effective at reducing levels of a
               range of contaminants, but have several drawbacks, principally their technological complexity,
               the cost for small-scale application, and the lack of public acceptance, especially for incineration
               that may increase the exposure to contaminants for both the workers at the site and nearby
               residents.










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